Type 2 diabetes mellitus: diet and treatment, nutrition and symptoms of the disease

Unfortunately, a disease such as type 2 diabetes affects more people every year. In terms of mortality, it ranks second, second only to oncology. The risk of such a disease is not only in constantly elevated glucose levels, but in the failure of almost all bodily functions.

"Sweet" disease is not treated, you can only minimize the risk of complications and avoid insulin-dependent type of diabetes. To normalize sugar levels, endocrinologists mainly prescribe a low-carbohydrate diet and regular exercise therapy. It turns out that type 2 diabetes diet and nutritional treatment was the main and primary therapy.

If with the help of diet therapy it is not possible to achieve the desired results, you should start taking hypoglycemic drugs. It is also necessary to monitor blood counts with a glucometer at home.

Causes and symptoms

unhealthy foods for type 2 diabetes

Diabetes refers to diseases of the endocrine system, when the level of sugar in the blood constantly rises. This is due to a reduction in the tendency of cells, as well as tissues with the hormone insulin, produced by the pancreas.

It is worth noting that the body produces this hormone in sufficient quantities, but the cells do not react to it. This condition is called insulin resistance.

There is no single and specific cause of type 2 diabetes, but doctors have identified risk factors, one of which is age 40. It is at this age that DM is often diagnosed. But this does not mean that the disease has developed significantly. It is likely that the patient ignored the symptoms of prediabetes for many years, leaving the body exhausted.

SD symptoms:

  • thirst;
  • dry mouth;
  • slow healing of wounds and scratches;
  • frequent urge to go to the toilet;
  • rapid fatigue;
  • sleepiness.

If at least one of the symptoms is manifested, it is recommended to visit an endocrinologist for an analysis to exclude or confirm the presence of an ailment. Diagnosis is quite simple - delivery of venous and capillary blood. If you know the symptoms and the treatment will be effective.

Diabetes is more common in the following categories of people:

  1. age over 40;
  2. overweight by abdominal type;
  3. malnutrition, when the diet is dominated by light carbohydrates (sweets, flour products);
  4. a sedentary lifestyle without proper physical activity;
  5. high blood pressure;
  6. the presence of diabetes in the next of kin.

When treating a "sweet" disease, it is necessary to strictly adhere to a diet aimed at lowering blood glucose.

diet therapy

doctor recommends fruit for type 2 diabetes

>A properly formulated therapeutic diet, together with moderate physical activity, is the main treatment for diabetes. One of the main rules is not to starve and not to overeat. The number of meals is six times a day. Last dinner at least a few hours before bedtime.

Type 2 Diabetes Diet and nutritional therapy stabilize blood sugar levels. Up to half of the daily diet should be vegetables. Also, the daily menu must include cereals, fruit, meat or fish and dairy products.

A diabetic body suffers from a lack of vitamins and minerals. This is due to a failure in metabolic processes, not only the endocrine system. This is why it is so important to eat a balanced diet.

From the above, the main principles of the diet can be distinguished:

  • small meals, six times a day;
  • minimum fluid intake - two liters;
  • don't starve and don't overeat;
  • dinner should be light, you should limit yourself to a glass of fermented milk product or 150 grams of cottage cheese;
  • fruit should be included in breakfast;
  • in the preparation of vegetable dishes, use only seasonal products;
  • choose products according to the GI.

All diabetic foods should have a low glycemic index. Endocrinologists adhere to this indicator when formulating diet therapy.

In addition to observing the principles of nutrition, one should not forget the permissible heat treatment, aimed at the absence of bad cholesterol in dishes.

Cooking is permitted in the following ways:

  1. appetite
  2. for a few;
  3. in the microwave;
  4. bake in the oven;
  5. in a multicooker;
  6. stew, using a small amount of vegetable oil.

It is necessary to study the concept of GI separately and learn by yourself how to formulate a diet based on personal taste preferences.

After all, the selection of diabetic products is quite extensive and allows you to cook many healthy dishes.

GI of products in diet therapy

foods for type 2 diabetes

The glycemic index is a measure that shows the effect of a certain food after eating it on raising blood sugar levels. Products with a low GI contain digestible complex carbohydrates, which is not only necessary for the patient, but gives him a feeling of satiety for a long time.

Diabetics must choose from those food categories that have a low GI. Food with an average indicator can be in the diet only occasionally, no more than twice a week. High GI products are able to raise the glucose level to 4 mmol / l in a relatively short period of time.

The glycemic index of foods is divided into three categories. But in addition to this value, you must pay attention to the calorie content of the food. So, some food has zero unit value, but at the same time it has bad cholesterol and high calorie content.

A bright one will take fat, which does not contain carbohydrates and has 0 units, but it is categorically contraindicated for diabetics. GI Department:

  • 0 - 50 units - low;
  • 50 - 69 units - medium;
  • over 70 units - high.

There is a special product table with indexes to make it easier for the patient to create a menu for himself. Some products after heat treatment can significantly increase the index - these are beets and carrots. Raw they are allowed, but cooked under the ban.

A therapeutic diet allows you to cook dishes from such vegetables:

  1. onion;
  2. all types of cabbage - white and red, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, broccoli;
  3. garlic;
  4. an egg;
  5. tomato;
  6. string beans and asparagus;
  7. lentils;
  8. peas;
  9. squash;
  10. cucumber.
Greens and vegetables for type 2 diabetes

Many people are used to having potatoes on their table. But with a "sweet" disease, it is better to refuse it because of the high GI. In very rare cases, when it is still decided to use the tubers, they should be pre-soaked in water overnight. Therefore, you can get rid of starch and reduce the index a little.

Vegetables are a source of vitamins, microelements and fiber for diabetes. They prepare not only fresh salads, but also side dishes, as well as complex dishes. It is allowed to diversify the taste qualities with greens - spinach, lettuce, oregano, basil, dill and parsley.

Equally important are the results of the diet. The allowed daily norm should not be more than 150 - 200 grams. Results, even with a low index, can not be juiced. With this treatment, they lose fiber and glucose quickly enters the bloodstream.

When you are on a diet, the following fruits and berries are allowed:

  • cherry;
  • apricot;
  • pear;
  • nectarine;
  • persimmon;
  • black and red roses;
  • all kinds of citrus fruits - orange, lemon, grapefruit, tangerine, pomelo and lime;
  • gooseberry;
  • sweet cherry;
  • peach.

Dried fruits contain many valuable substances, no more than 50 grams per day is allowed. Dried fruit is good to add to cereals, creating a complete food dish. Low GI dried fruit - dried apricots, prunes and figs.

Meat, offal, fish and seafood are a daily part of the menu. At the same time, fish should be present at least three times in the weekly diet. Choose lean meat and fish. The skin and the remains of the fat are removed, which do not contain vitamins, only bad cholesterol.

Endocrinologists recommend the following products:

  1. chicken;
  2. rabbit meat;
  3. turkey;
  4. beef;
  5. hens ;
  6. chicken liver;
  7. beef liver;
  8. beef tongue;
  9. beef lungs.

There are no restrictions on the choice of seafood. From fish, you can choose monkfish, halibut, pike or perch.

Grains are a source of energy, so they give a feeling of satiety for a long time. Some have a high GI, especially white rice. His other choice is brown (brown) rice, which has a GI of 50 units. It takes a little longer to cook - about 45 minutes.

Barley is considered the most valuable cereal, its GI is only 22 units. Other types of cereals are also allowed:

  • barley grains;
  • buckwheat;
  • oatmeal;
  • wheat porridge.

By the way, the thicker the porridge, the lower its index.

There are few restrictions on dairy products and sour milk. All are based on the fat content of products. Therefore, it would be reasonable to refuse sour cream, margarine and butter.

Medical treatment

tablets for type 2 diabetes

If with the help of diet therapy the desired results cannot be achieved, the doctor is forced to prescribe hypoglycemic drugs. Its choice in the pharmaceutical market is extensive.

Self-medication is prohibited, since all pills have their own side effects. Only an endocrinologist can choose the right pills for the patient, taking into account the characteristics of the body and the course of the disease.

The purpose of hypoglycemic drugs is to stimulate pancreatic cells to increase the production of the hormone insulin so that it is in the blood in the amount needed.

If in this case the level of glucose in the blood cannot be normalized, then the therapy includes several groups of hypoglycemic tablets.

Additional measures

Exercises for type 2 diabetes

In the presence of type 2 diabetes, treatment should include feasible physical activity. This acts as a great compensation for high sugar levels.

That is, when playing sports in the body, all metabolic processes are accelerated, and glucose is absorbed faster.

You should spend at least half an hour a day on this lesson. If you can't exercise daily, then at least you need to walk in the fresh air on foot for forty minutes.

You can choose the following types of physical activity for type 2 diabetics:

  • yoga;
  • Nordic Walking;
  • sports walk;
  • jogging ;
  • cycling;
  • swimming.

If one wants to study at home, then on the Internet there are many video courses dedicated specifically to diabetics.

If training is done outside the home and after they have a feeling of hunger, then it is allowed to make an additional meal - a snack. A great option would be 50 grams of nuts, which contain nutritious protein, have a low GI and fight appetite perfectly. The allowable daily allowance is not only exceeded, because such a product is high-calorie.

From all of the above, it should be concluded that the manifestation of diabetes can be minimized using only two rules: follow the principles of diet therapy for diabetes and regular exercise.